The Sun is an essential component of our solar system, and what happens to it will have a big impact on life on Earth and the rest of the solar system. In this blog, we will discuss the future of the Sun and of our solar system.

Currently, our Sun is a main sequence star, as nuclear fusion takes place in its core, converting its hydrogen supply to helium. This generates energy, in the form of photons (light) and is crucial for life on Earth. However, the Sun’s energy output will change over time which will have an enormous impact on the solar system, particularly us.

In around 5 billion years, the Sun will have used up its hydrogen supply and will begin nuclear fusion with helium. This will result in its properties changing significantly with the Sun becoming a red giant and entering its red giant phase. The Sun will expand, and its luminosity will increase dramatically. The expansion of the Sun will see it engulf Mercury, Venus and possibly Earth. This would see all life on Earth die. The Sun will cool down over time before expanding again once its helium supply runs out. Thus, it will experience a second red giant phase but this time in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Eventually, the Sun will not be able to hold its outer layers and will expel them and form a planetary nebula. The Sun itself will become a bright, hot white dwarf and over time, it will cool down to become a black dwarf.

The constant changing of the Sun’s dynamics will have a mass effect on the rest of the solar system. Firstly, in the Sun’s red giant phase, Mercury, Venus and potentially Earth will be engulfed, with the orbits of the more outer planets being altered due to the mass of the Sun decreasing, which may result in collisions due to instability. In a more severe scenario, some planets may be ejected from the solar system. However, all this has a big question mark over it, and we do not know for sure what the future holds for our solar system. New research has shown that a companion star may affect the stability of the solar system in the future. It may bring more chaos and more disturbance to the orbits of planets, or it may help in stabilizing the situation.

In conclusion, the Sun’s and the solar system’s futures are unpredictable and the future of the solar system is still unknown. However, we know that the sun will eventually turn into a red giant and possibly swallow up Earth. Therefore, in order to ensure the survival of our species, we must keep exploring and broadening our understanding of the universe.

1) Williams, M. (2016). What is the Life Cycle Of The Sun? – Universe Today. [online] Universe Today. Available at:
2) Staff (2017). Nemesis Star Theory: The Sun’s ‘Death Star’ Companion. [online] Available at: